多元的アプローチとは? What are Pluralistic Approaches?




Pluralistic approaches to language and culture (including Awakening to languages, Integrative Didactics, Intercomprehension, and Intercultural Approaches) are centered on activities that promote learning through multiple languages and cultures, and are concrete strategies for teaching that have developed from the concepts of plurilingual and pluricultural competence promoted by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). Pluralistic approaches are ongoing pedagogical interventions that provide learners with the tools to expand upon their plurilingual and pluricultural competences, and build connections with other knowledge. One useful pluralistic supplementary to the Council of Europe’s documents is the “Framework of Reference for a Pluralistic Approach to Language and Culture” (FREPA/CARAP).

The phrasing ‘pluralistic approach to language and culture’ refers to teaching approaches that involve more than one language and culture. It thus stands in opposition to monolingual/monocultural approaches that treat specific languages and cultures in isolation from others. Monolingual approaches, typically based on structural linguistics (including communicative language teaching), eschew all types of translation and reliance on the mother tongue in teaching methodology. Pluralistic approaches, by contrast, embrace them.


Candelier, M., Camilleri-Grima, A., Castellotti,V., de Pietro, J.-F., Lörincz, I., Meißner, F.-J., Schröder-Sura, A., Noguerol, A. & Molinié, M. (2013): FREPA – Competences and resources. Strasbourg : Council of Europe. [http://carap.ecml.at/]

「言語への目覚め活動」とは? What is "Awakening to Languages"?


言語への目覚め活動はヨーロッパのいくつかのプロジェクト(特にEvlang, Janua-Lingualum)を通して広く発展してきました。そこでは「言語への目覚めは、学校が教えるつもりのない言語に関連した活動が行われる場合に生じる」と定義されています。これは学校で教えられていない言語のみを扱うという意味ではなく、就学言語やカリキュラムに含まれるその他の言語に関連している場合もあるのですが、「学習中の言語」に限定されることなく、子どもの暮らす環境(地域や国)や、家庭言語、さらに世界中のあらゆる種類の言語を排除しません。


言語への目覚め活動(フランス語でl’éveil aux langues、英語でAwakening to languages)という名前はEvlangとJalingというヨーロッパのプログラムで開発されたものですが、1980年代にイギリスでE. Hawkinsによって開始された言語意識(Language Awareness)運動と明確に関連しています。しかし、今日では、目覚め活動は、言語意識(Language Awareness)のサブカテゴリーとみなされる場合もあります。今日、ランゲージ・アウェアネスと呼ばれる研究領域では、教育学的というよりも心理言語学的な研究が行われており、必ずしも学習者が多くの言語に直面することを指してはいません。このため、言語への目覚め活動の推進者は、この教授法を説明するときに、ランゲージ・アウェアネスではなく、Awakening to langauges(言語への目覚め)という用語を好んで使っています。

Awakening to Languages (French: L’éveil aux langues) is a teaching methodology that incorporates languages both explicitly taught in schools and those not taught in activities designed to promote awareness of different cultures, ways of thinking, and about language itself.

Awakening to Languages activities have been primarily developed through large scale projects in Europe (particularly EvLang and Janua Linguarum). By definition, ‘awakening to languages occurs through activities that include languages schools do not explicitly teach.’ This does not mean that the approach focuses only on languages not named in the curriculum, it is also inclusive of the language of schooling and specific target languages – rather, the approach is not limited to these languages, and does not exclude languages in local societies (regions or countries), children’s home languages, or even distant languages.

Because of the sheer number of languages incorporated in Awakening to Languages activities (frequently dozens, and simultaneously), it may appear to be the most ‘extreme’ of the pluralistic approaches. The approach is designed primarily as a kind of ‘preparation for learning’ in (usually elementary) schools, by introducing children to language diversity (including diversity in mother tongues), and as a means of recognizing and acknowledging the different languages that children bring into the classroom, but is also promoted as support for specific language learning throughout the years of schooling.

The ‘Awakening to Languages’ (L’éveil aux langues) name was developed through the above-mentioned projects, although it is directly related to the Language Awareness movement started by Eric Hawkins in the UK in the 1980s. Today, it is sometimes viewed as a subcategory of Language Awareness. Recently, however, the field of Language Awareness is primarily concerned with psycholinguistics rather than pedagogy, and does not necessarily refer to learners’ encounters with multiple languages. For this reason, proponents of this approach prefer the name Awakening to Languages when describing the teaching methodology.


Beacco, J.-C.,  Byram, M., Cavalli, M., Coste, D., Egli Cuenat, M., Goullier, F. & Panthier, J. (2016). Guide for the development and implementation of curricula for plurilingual and intercultural education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Candelier, M. (ed.) (2003), Evlang – l’éveil aux langues à l’école primaire – Bilan d’une innovation européenne, Bruxelles, De Boek – Duculot.

Candelier, M. (ed.) (2003). Janua Linguarum – La Porte des Langues – L’introduction de l’éveil aux langues dans le curriculum. Strasbourg : Centre Européen pour les Langues Vivantes / Conseil de l’Europe.

Candelier, M. (2016). Awakening to languages and language policy, in: J. Cenoz, N. Hornberger, & S. May. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 3rd edition, Vol 6. Language Awareness and Multilingualism, 1-12. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Gajo, L. (2014). From normalization to didactization of multilingualism: european and francophone research at the crossroads between linguistics and didactics, in J. Conteh & G. Meier (Hrsg.), The multilingual turn in languages education: opportunities and challenges, 113-131. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Hawkins, E. (1984). Awareness of language. An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Herdina, Ph. et Jessner, U. (2002). A Dynamic Model of Multilingualism – Perspectives of Change in Psycholinguistics. Clevedon: Multilingual matters.



– Kervran, M. (Dir.) (2006 – 2012). Les langues du Monde au quotidien – cycle 2 / au cycle 3. CRDP de Rennes.

– Kervran, M. (Dir.) (2012, à paraître). Découvrir le monde des langues à la maternelle.

– Auger, N. (2005a), Comparons nos langues, une démarche d’apprentissage du français auprès des enfants nouvellement arrivés (ENA), Editions CNDP, collection Ressources Formation Multimédia, fabrication : CRDP Languedoc-Roussillon, CDDP du Gard, DVD (26 mn),  guide pédagogique, 15 pages.

– Perregaux, C, de Goumoëns, Cl.,  Jeannot, D. & de Pietro, J.-F. (Dir.) (2003). Education au langage et Ouverture aux langues à l’école (EOLE). Neuchâtel, Secrétariat général de la CIIP, 2 volumes. [CIIP.SRTI@ne.ch]

– Krier (M.), Perregaux (Ch.) & Tonnar (Ch.) (2010). Ouverture aux langues à l’école Vers des compétences plurilingues et pluriculturelles. Ministère de l’éducation du Luxembourg.

統合的教授法(Didactique intégrée)とは? What is 'Integrated Didactics'?



この教授法の方向性は、1980年代初期にスイスの応用言語学者Eddy Rouletの研究において示されました。

「このような観点からみると、母語学習と第二言語教育の関係が新たに見えてきます。母語は、第二言語教育についての構造主義的教授法の推進者にとっては、不幸な干渉の源であり、あらゆる手段(明示的な比較や翻訳を拒否すること)によって無害化されなければならないものでしたが、もはやそうではなく、そのまったく逆に、外国語を学ぶ上で貴重な助けとなりうるのです。」(E. Roulet: Langue maternelle et langues secondes: vers une pédagogogie intégrée. 1980, 26-27)



日本では、移民の子どもたちの学習支援のために、「教科・母語・日本語相互育成学習モデル」を推進する人たちがいます。(宇津木,2007; 清田,2007, 2016; 髙梨, 2012 )


Integrated Didactics aims to held learners make connections between a specific number of languages taught in the school curriculum. The approach is based on a central tenet of pluralistic approaches – that learners build on what they already know to learn what they are not yet familiar with.

Integrated Didactics involves learning a second language (e.g.., English), based upon the language of schooling (e.g., Japanese), or learning a third language (e.g., Chinese) based upon the second language, while providing feedback on the connections made during learning. In this approach, particularly when taught at schools, it is important to be mindful of children’s mother tongue(s). Essentially, Integrated Didactics involves the simultaneously learning of two (or even three or four) languages.

The foundations for this approach were established in the early 1980s in the work of Swiss applied linguist, Eddy Roulet:

“From this point of view, the relationship between learning of the mother tongue and second language teaching takes on a new dimension. The mother tongue, regarded as an unfortunate source of interference for the proponents of structuralist teaching of second language, and therefore had to be rendered impotent (avoiding explicit comparisons, disallowing translation, etc.), is no longer seen as such. Quite the contrary, the mother tongue becomes a valuable aid in learning a foreign language.” (E. Roulet: Langue maternelle et langues secondes: vers une pédagogogie intégrée. 1980, 26-27)

In the field of language education, many studies on third language teaching, such as ‘learning German after English,’ are based on this perspective. (https://www.ecml.at)

Others view the relationship between the target language of study and the language of schooling from an integrated perspective. In bilingual education, too, some are interested in helping teachers draw learners’ attention to similarities and differences between the languages of schooling.

In Japan, some researchers promote the ‘subject-mother tongue-Japanese mutual learning model’ to support immigrant children’s learning (Utsuki, 2007; Kiyota, 2007; 2016; Takanashi, 2012).

Furthermore, in the context of foreign language education in Japanese elementary and junior high schools, some educational practitioners are encourage explicit comparisons with Japanese when teaching English and foster students’ self-reflection through means such as reflection sheets.


Babylonia (2008): Mehrsprachigkeitsdidaktik: Erfahrungen und Umsetzung. Comano: Fondazione Lingue e Culture (1/08).

Babylonia (2009): Integrierte Sprachendidaktik und Mehrsprachigkeit. Comano: Fondazione Lingue e Culture (4/09).

Berthele, R. (2010). Mehrsprachigkeitskompetenz als dynamisches Repertoire – Vorüberlegungen zu einer integrierten Sprachendidaktik. Sprachen lernen – durch Sprache lernen. F. Bitter Bättig and A. Tanner. Zürich, Seismo: 225-239

Forlot, G. (dir.) (2009). L’anglais et le plurilinguisme Pour une didactique des contacts et des passerelles linguistiques. Paris : L’Harmattan.

Hufeisen, B. & Lutjeharms, M.(Hrsg.)(2005): Gesamtsprachencurriculum. Integrierte Sprachendidaktik. Common Curriculum. Tübingen: Narr.

Metry, A.; Steiner, E.; Ritz, T. (Hrsgl.)(2009): Sprachenlernen in der Schule. Bern: hep.

Roulet, E. (1980). Langue maternelle et langues secondes : vers une pédagogie intégrée. Paris, HatierCrédif.

Steffen, G. (2013): Les disciplines dans l‘enseignement bilingue. Apprentissage intégré des savoirs disciplinaires et linguistiques. PL Academic research.

Wokusch, S. (2005): Didactique intégrée: vers une définition. In: Babylonia, 4, 14–16.

(この教授法に関しては他にもla revue Babylonia のアーカイブを参照のこと: For more on this teaching method, see the archives at la revue Babylonia.)


清田淳子・編著 (2016) 『外国から来た子どもの学びを支えるー公立学校における母語を活用した学習支援の可能性』文理閣

宇津木奈美子(2007)「子どもの母語を活用した学習支援における母語支援者の意識変容のプロセス」『人間文化創成科学論叢』10, 85-94

高梨宏子(2012)「外国人生徒への学習支援に対する教員の意識変容:生徒の母語を用いた学習支援に対するPAC分析調査 」『人間文化創成科学論叢』15, 231-239